# General Rhomb Tiling Model.

( Section II of rhomb tiling paper **)**

We will denote a rhomb prototile with opening angle as and the corresponding substitution rhomb tile as . The model is based on the observation that the combined area of the pair of rhomb prototiles and is proportional to the area of the rhomb prototile , the proportionality factor being independent of . Consequently, substitution tiles may be constructed from a combination of prototiles and pairs of tiles . If and are their numbers respectively, the ratio of the area of and is

(1)

A second requirement for a tiling of the entire plane is to realize proper edge substitutions. We will assume that all four substitution tile edges have the same shape. Neighbouring edges at the opening angle are related by a rotation over that angle and opposite edges are related by a translation (Fig. M1). This edge arrangement also ensures that the substitution tile area is equal to the inflated rhomb area, and, therefore, is equal to the *areal scaling factor*. The angles between the outer prototile edges and the substitution tile rhomb edge will be called the *edge angles* . For now, we will assume that overhangs are not allowed and . The length of the substitution tile rhomb edge

(2)

is the *inflation factor* of the rhomb tiles. Because the areal scaling factor is the square of , equations 1 and 2 can be combined into

(3)

This equality can only be satisfied if the arguments and are both equal to an integer times for all and . There are two solutions: either all angles are equal to an integer times , or all of them are equal to a half-integer times .

Because the beginning and end of the substitution edge have to be at the endpoints of the substitution tile rhomb edge, the following relationship between the edge angles should be met:

(4)

A general solution of is that the edge angles occur in -pairs or are zero.

*There are also special solutions. For instance, if one requires that the sum of three terms is zero, one finds that and . This solution is valid if is a multiple of 3. An example satisfying this condition is the Lord tiling, having edge angles and \cite{HarrissFrett}. in this case, and the edge sequence is . In this paper, however, we will only consider the more general pairing condition.*

In the general case equation 3 becomes

(5)

or

(6)

Equations 5 or 6 determine the type and number of prototiles from which the substitution tile can be constructed, once the shape of the substitution tile edge has been chosen. In view of the above considerations, this edge shape may be characterized by a sequence of integers or half-integers, the \textit{edge sequence} , defined by , \cite{Maloney14}.

If the finite edge angles are present as pairs in accordance with equation 4, always a valid solution for the substitution tile is obtained, because both sides may be written as a sum of cosine terms having even valued coefficients. The pairing of the edge angles, therefore, guarantees that the substitution tiles are composed of an integer number of prototiles.

Equations 5 or 6 constitute a connection between the prototile edge angle pairs and the numbers of prototiles in a substitution tile , not their arrangement. The relations do not guarantee that a consistent set of substitution tiles can be found. However, in the following we will show that a general set of substitution rhomb tiles can be constructed for arbitrary and for an arbitrary substitution tile edge shape.

We start with a construction of the circumference of the tile as described earlier and illustrated in Fig.~??. Next, copies of the edges are translated to the breaks of neighbouring edges. If the breaks of the upper and lower left edge are indexed as and respectively, starting at the left corner as indicated in Fig.~??), one obtains a grid of vertices , at which four prototiles meet. The one bounded by the vertices , , and is a prototile of the type . The vertices at diagonal positions are occupied by tiles , whereas one can find pairs of tiles at off-diagonal positions and . This general substitution rule may be represented by the following matrix

(7)

For later use one should note, that the prototiles parallel to the substitution edges, i.e. the rows or columns of the matrix, form worms, and the edges of the worms have shapes identical to the edge shape of the substitution tile.

The prototiles are allowed to have indices or . These prototiles will have negative areas, meaning that they have to be subtracted from the tiling. We consider a tiling of the plane to be a legitimate one, if in the end there are no holes or overlaps. So, negative or subtraction tiles are allowed, if they remove all overlaps between tiles and do not leave holes in the tiling. In one of the next sections, we will reason, that this is presumably the case for substitution edges without loops. Also the zero area prototiles for which or play a important role in our scheme and cannot simply be neglected.

# Substitution Matrices.

Here we want to reformulate the rhomb substitution model in terms of the edge and tile substitution matrices.

If overhangs are included, the prototile edges in a tiling will point into directions. Each of these is replaced by a number of prototile edges in orientations determined by the edge sequence, i.e. in the same, in the opposite direction and with in directions differing by and . The edge substitution matrix, therefore, is

(8)

A tile with index is substituted by prototiles with index , with index and with index and , with and . So the substitution matrix is

(9)

The relation between the tile and edge substitution matrices is

(10)

This matrix equation may be used to calculate the numbers of prototiles in a substitution tile for a given edge shape instead of equations 5 .

The are given by the product of the first row and the -th column

(11)

Both and are matrices \cite{Kra12}.

Consequently, a shorthand notation of equations 8 and 9 is

(12)

(13)

All matrices are known to have the same set of normalized eigenvectors

(14)

with and .

The eigenvalues of are

(15)

, and because of relation , those of are .

The eigenvector is equal to the inflation factor

(16)

A substitution tiling can only be a model set for a quasi crystal if its inflation factor is a Pisot- or PV-number \cite{Meyer95}, because a model set is point diffractive \cite{Hof95}. is a PV-number, if the absolute value of all its conjugates is less than 1. The conjugate eigenvalues are the ones for coprime to . Using the above formulae we find that the inflation factors are PV-numbers in the following or or socalled cases:

The edge substitution matrix for a halfinteger edge sequence can be obtained by doubling the value. The fractional indices have to be doubled as well and become the values for odd k, whereas the for even k are zero. From table ?? it is clear that the half integer single dent substitution tiles will not have PV inflation factors.